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Bibliographie

Einstein, Alfred : The Italian Madrigal (vertaald naar het Engels door Alexander H. Krappe, Roger H. Sessions en Oliver Strunk)

Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 1949


P.384-423 is volledig gewijd aan De Rore

Cite des sources des oeuvres de De Rore :
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Cites des oeuvres de De Rore : -->

Référence mentionnée dans :

- Schiltz, Katelijne : Rore, Rorus, Cipriano, Ciprianus, de (MGG) (Schiltz, Katelijne (1999–2007))

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Cite les sources suivantes des oeuvres de De Rore

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1 : {Census} - MunBS B : '{Census} - MunBS B'
- p. 385-386 : 'Albrecht V [of Bavaria] gave his admiration for Rore a further and monumental expression by ordering the preparation, during the following two years, of the magnificent Munich codex containing twenty-six of Rore's motets: 153 parchment leaves, among them 83 with miniatures by the Munich court painter Hans Muelich, and on p. 304 a half-portrait of the master. The codex was completed in December 1559; five years later there was added an equally magnificent commentary, the text of which was the work of the humanist Samuel Quickelberg, a learned younger compatriot of Rore's. The codex contains not only sacred motets but also five secular compositions to Latin texts : the great tripartite scène of Dido's death from the fourth book of the Aeneid 'Dissimulare etiam sperasti', Horace's ode 'Donec gratus eram tibi', a hymn of praise for five voices in honor of Duke Ercole, another in honor of Duke Albrecht V, also for five voices, and finally an epigram on the force of destiny, by Caelius Firmianus Simphosius 'O fortuna potens tantum iuris', Of these compositions, the only one printed by Rore himself is that for the Duke of Bavaria; not one has been reprinted. Rore was able to sit in person for the painter of the Munich miniature, in March or April 1558.'

2 : {RISM} - 1548_09 : 'Di Cipriano Rore et di altri eccellentissimi musici il terzo libro di madrigali a cinque voce novamente da lui composti et non più messi in luce. Con diligentia stampati. Musica nova & rara come a quelli che la canteranno & udiranno sara paleze.'
- p. 402

3 : {RISM} - 1565_18 : 'Le vive fiamme de' vaghi e dilettevoli madrigali dell'ecc. Musico Cipriano Rore, a quattro et cinque voci, novamente posti in luce, per Giulio Bonagionta da S. Genesi, musico dell'illustriss. Sig. Di Vineggia'
- p. 387-388 : 'And the 'Vive fiamme' of 1565 seem to suggest that Rore also entered into relations with the Fuggers of Augsburg in the course of these journeys to Flanders or from Flanders to Italy : 'Rex Asiae et Ponti ...'.'

4 : {RISM} - R2480 (1544) : 'Il primo libro de madregali cromatici a cinque voci con una nova gionta del medesmo autore; novamente ristampato & da infiniti errori emendato, libro primo.'
- p. 398-399 : 'In the title of the second edition of the first book of five-part madrigals (1544) stands the strange designation madregali cromatici which, as our examples have shown sufficiently, can have nothing to do with "chromaticism" in the modern, harmonic sense of the term. Rore does not yet know this sort of chromaticism; indeed he is even less 'colorful' and harmonically more austere and ascetic than his teacher Willaert. The word 'cromatico' points only to the use of black notes in four-four time; with two exceptions ('Da quei bei lumi' and 'Hor che l'aria e la terra'), every composition in the book has the time-signature C.' Note : ici en ajout une description de la signification de "chrromatique" au temps de De Rore.


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Cite les oeuvres suivantes de De Rore

1 : A che con nuovo laccio, 5vv (Madrigaal) - [0, 4 Refs., , +T]
- p. 403

2 : Alcun non può saper, 5vv (Madrigaal) - [1, 4 Refs., , +Tne]
- p. 419 : exemple musical
- p. 390 : 'When Rore sets the first stanza in canto XIX of the Orlando furioso: Alcun non può saper it is an homage to the house of Este in the sense intended by the poet, himself a servant of the family, though a poorly paid one. And in the following stanza (Orlando furioso, XLIII, 62) the intension is unmistakable: L'ineffabel bontà this is a prayer for Ferrara and the Estes, a prayer that unfortunately remained unanswered.'

3 : Alla dolce ombra - Non vide il mondo - Un lauro mi diffese - Pero piu ferm'ogn'hor - Selve sassi campagne - Tanto mi piacque, 4vv (Madrigaal) - [6, 3 Refs., , +Tne]
- p. 409 : 'The latest of the pieces is perhaps Petrarch's sestina Alla dolc'ombra delle belle frondi, the little four-part pendant to the Vergini. [. . .] The opening of the fifth stanza will give an idea of Rore's new melodic means and at the same time serve to conclude our discussion : [exemple musical]'

4 : Alma real, se come fida stella, 5vv (Madrigaal) - [1, 8 Refs., , +Tne]
- p. 387 : 'One of these offers must have come from Italy, as also from Margareta of Parma, Governor of the Netherlands. 'Margareta was a music-lover and had eve maintained musicians in her employ until she left Parma in 1569 after a quarrel with her husband and established her residence in Cittaducale and later at the little town of Aquila. Rore accepts this offer and expresses his thanks for this summons to Brussles in a setting of a sonnet Alma real se come fida stella.' (+ texte complète du poème)

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5 : Alma Susanna, 5vv (Madrigaal) - [1, 5 Refs., , +Tne]
- p. 393 : 'Needless to say, Rore also wrote to order a number of pieces in honor of noble ladies: a Venetian Elena (La bella Greca, IV, 1; thus a dedication); a certain Rosa (Ben si convien, I, 19); an Alma Susanna (V, 5); on the departure for Cremona of an alta Isabella (Sfrondate o sacre dive, II, 3); on the wedding of a Gonzaga (Cantiamo lieti, II, 1); besides these there are other wedding songs (Scielgan l'alme sorelle, II, 14) and threnodies, e.g., Francesco Maria Molza's sonnet Altiero sasso (I, 6) on the death of a Roman, or Tu piangi (I, 7).'

6 : Alme gentili, 5vv (Madrigaal) - [0, 2 Refs., , +T]
- p. 422 : 'In 1576 Angelo Gardano, in his Musica di XIII Autori illustri a cinque voci ... Nella quale si contengono i piu belli Madrigali che hoggidi si cantino, publishes two madrigals of Rore's, contrasted in tempo and content: the one, Che giova dunque perche tutta spalme, in the misura cromaica, is intimate and impassioned; the other, Alme gentili che nel ciel vi ornaste, in the misura di breve, is a broadly developed festival sonnet on Alme Camille. Gardano's twelve other 'illustrious authors' are Donato, Andrea Gabrieli, Lasso, Merulo, Monte, Nanino, Annibale Padovano, Palestrina, Porta, Spontone, Striggio, and Wert.'

7 : Altiero sasso lo cui gioco spira, 5vv (Madrigaal) - [1, 5 Refs., , +T]
- p. 393 : 'Needless to say, Rore also wrote to order a number of pieces in honor of noble ladies: a Venetian Elena (La bella Greca, IV, 1; thus a dedication); a certain Rosa (Ben si convien, I, 19); an Alma Susanna (V, 5); on the departure for Cremona of an alta Isabella (Sfrondate o sacre dive, II, 3); on the wedding of a Gonzaga (Cantiamo lieti, II, 1); besides these there are other wedding songs (Scielgan l'alme sorelle, II, 14) and threnodies, e.g., Francesco Maria Molza's sonnet Altiero sasso (I, 6) on the death of a Roman, or Tu piangi (I, 7).'

8 : Anchor che col partire, 4vv (Madrigaal) - [257, 14 Refs., , +Tne]
- p. 403-404 : 'Anchor che col partire was even reprinted as late as the seventeenth century, and there were dozens of arrangements, paraphrases, and parodies for the lute and other instruments, for example the arrangement for the lute by Vincenzo Galilei (1568). As late as 1612 it was parodied by Gabriello Puliti of Montepulciano in the form of a mascherata for three voices: Ancor ch'al parturire. . . . As an aid to the understanding of the idiom of Rore's four-part madrigals and of the taste of his time, it will perhaps be best to reproduce it here, although through Hawkins and Kiesewetter it again became familiar in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
However strange it may seem to us, there can be no doubt that the poem contributed also to this unparalleled success; it is the work of Alfonso d'Avalos Marchese del Vasto (1502-1546), a cousin of the famous Pescara and hence a brother-in-law of the equally famous Vittoria Colonna. It is the exact opposite of poetry - an epigram, an argument reduced to the most concise formula, remote from all true feeling but for this very reason accessible and attractive to the taste of the time. Even so, the chief factor was the music. This still recalls the early madrigal in that the voices are led in pairs, two against two, an arrangement which gives way to a more compact texture only in the central section and at the end. This too is essential to success, which comes most readily, not to radical, revolutionary works, but to those that combine the old with the new. The new elements in this madrigal are three: the freedom in the voice-leading, the transparency of the harmonie texture, and above all the freedom of tempo, which cannot be explained as due to a pictorial intention as in the older madrigal, where at the words correre and fuggire the voices may begin to run or fly. This madrigal no longer has a uniform tempo; technically speaking, it is a matter of indifference that the time-signature is C and not . A new freedom of incalculable consequence has been won. The madrigal may now change its tempo in two ways, according to its expressive need. With the sign it may accelerate the tempo, while with the sign C it may retard it. This new freedom will obtain international validity, and by measuring the extent of its use, one may estimate the Italian influence on a French, a German, or an English master. As an example, there is the case of Anthoine de Bertrand of Auvergne, who recalls Rore and his successors in his harmonic boldness also.'
- p. 389 : 'When Orazio Vecchi wishes to parody a familiar madrigal in his Amphiparnasso (1579), he chooses Rore's Anchor che col partire.'

9 : Ben qui si mostra il ciel, 4vv (Madrigaal) - [14, 3 Refs., , +Te]
- p. 422 : 'How reverently Rore was regarded by his colleagues is revealed in an anthology published in 1562 by the Roman music-printer Antonio Barre - II terzo libro delle Muse a quattro voci. Madrigali ariosi . . . (unknown to Vogel) - which brings together the greatest masters of the day - Nola, Lasso, Palestrina, Ruffo, and Monte - but a madrigal by Rore stands at the head. It seems to have served as introductory chorus for a pastoral drama: Ben qui si mostra il ciel . . . [volledige tekst van het gedicht]. Unfortunately the work has not come down to us complete.' '

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10 : Ben si conviene a voi, 5vv (Madrigaal) - [0, 2 Refs., , +T]
- p. 393 : 'Needless to say, Rore also wrote to order a number of pieces in honor of noble ladies: a Venetian Elena (La bella Greca, IV, 1; thus a dedication); a certain Rosa (Ben si convien, I, 19); an Alma Susanna (V, 5); on the departure for Cremona of an alta Isabella (Sfrondate o sacre dive, II, 3); on the wedding of a Gonzaga (Cantiamo lieti, II, 1); besides these there are other wedding songs (Scielgan l'alme sorelle, II, 14) and threnodies, e.g., Francesco Maria Molza's sonnet Altiero sasso (I, 6) on the death of a Roman, or Tu piangi (I, 7).'

11 : Calami sonum ferentes, 4vv (Motet) - [10, 13 Refs., , +Tnfe]
- p. 414-415 : 'Rore, too, seems to have paid his respects to the goddess of experimentation: namely, with his four-voiced ode Calami sonum ferentes, published in 1555 in a print of Orlando Lasso's (Il primo libro dove si contengono Madrigali, Vïlansche, Canzoni francesi, e Motetti . . . Antwerp, T. Susato). Lasso added to it his own rival composition Alma nemes. He must have become acquainted with Rore's piece in 1554 or 1555 on his journey from Rome to Antwerp and perhaps obtained it in Ferrara from Rore himself. The text implores the muse to brighten the poet's melancholy mood with her sweet song. [. . .] It is a frank challenge, like Willaert's duo, and as such represents no norm; but it reveals a perfect understanding of the harmonie relationships within a circle of keys extending from B major to F minor, and this understanding is made to serve a poetic and artistic intention, as is the opposition of the polyphonic outer sections to the more chordal inner section in triple time. And with this we touch on a new and characteristic feature of Rore's madrigal style, and not only Rore's: any excursion into the region of unfamiliar harmonies is usually associated with homophony. The antithesis of the linear and chordal orientations has become more pronounced. Thus, in the pieces in which it is harmonie, Rore's second book of four-voiced madrigals is also homophonic, A new field of expression has been won. The Latin ode was not really an experiment. Yet it was also not a norm; this follows even from the most extreme among the nine pieces of this second book. [. . .]'

12 : Cantai mentre ch'i arsi, 5vv (Madrigaal) - [1, 7 Refs., , +Tn]
- p. 395-396 : 'One has only to look at the opening of the first sonnet in his first book for five voices to see that none of the later entrances, of which two begin together, exactly imitates the motif of the soprano; that he does not consider (as might be thought) the poet's eleven-syllable line as the first line of the music but that, in keeping with sense and meaning, he adds to it half of the second; to see the independence with which each voice is led, and how intimately they blend into a single sonority; to see the refinement of his declama-tion, alternately syllabic and melismatic.' (met muziekvoorbeeld)

13 : Cantiamo lieti (2p La terra di novelli), 5vv (Madrigaal) - [3, 6 Refs., , +Te]
- p. 393 : 'Needless to say, Rore also wrote to order a number of pieces in honor of noble ladies: a Venetian Elena (La bella Greca, IV, 1; thus a dedication); a certain Rosa (Ben si convien, I, 19); an Alma Susanna (V, 5); on the departure for Cremona of an alta Isabella (Sfrondate o sacre dive, II, 3); on the wedding of a Gonzaga (Cantiamo lieti, II, 1); besides these there are other wedding songs (Scielgan l'alme sorelle, II, 14) and threnodies, e.g., Francesco Maria Molza's sonnet Altiero sasso (I, 6) on the death of a Roman, or Tu piangi (I, 7).'

14 : Che giova dunque, 5vv (Madrigaal) - [0, 3 Refs., , +Tne]
- p. 422 : 'In 1576 Angelo Gardano, in his 'Musica di XIII Autori illustri a cinque voci ... Nella quale si contengono i piu belli Madrigali che hoggidi si cantino', publishes two madrigals of Rore's, contrasted in tempo and content: the one, Che giova dunque perche tutta spalme, in the misura cromatica, is intimate and impassioned; the other, Alme gentili che nel ciel vi ornaste, in the misura di breve, is a broadly developed festival sonnet on 'Alme Camille'. Gardano's twelve other 'illustrious authors' are Donato, Andrea Gabrieli, Lasso, Merulo, Monte, Nanino, Annibale Padovano, Palestrina, Porta, Spontone, Striggio, and Wert.'

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15 : Come la notte ogni fiammella è viva, 5vv (Madrigaal) - [3, 3 Refs., , +Tne]
- p. 391 : 'Evidently official in purpose is also the setting of a stanza from th famous lament of Bradamante over Ruggiero (Orlando furioso, XLV, 37) : Come la notte for Rore hs set it as a canon between alto and soprano, yet with an epressivo, as though with an adagio middle part, for the seventh line of the stanza Deh torna a me, deh torna, o caro lume!.'

16 : Com'havran fin le dolorose tempre, 4vv (Madrigaal) - [1, 5 Refs., , +T]
- p. 408 : 'Certain pieces, such as La bella netta ignuda e bianca mano or Come havran fin Ie dolorose tempre, with their quiet flow, their compact texture, and their relative lack of personal expression, still stand close to their point of departure, the madrigal of Verdelot. But the 'ambiguity' of the tempo, the transparency of the part-writing, and the personal cast of the melos are constantly becoming more pronounced.'

17 : Da le belle contrade d'oriente, 5vv (Madrigaal) - [11, 11 Refs., , +Tne]
- p. 394 : 'Rore does not limit himself to texts that are in harmony with his dark emo-tions. His four-voiced madrigal books, in particular, are filled with conventional texts of the sort then in demand. And in the fifth book of the five-voiced madrigals, presumably made up of works found at Parma after the master's death, one violent contrast follows another: beside a sonetto spirituals (Qualhor rivolgo il basso mio pensiero, v, 9) stands an erotic sonnet of a sensuality that recalls Titian Dalle belle contrade d'oriente. This was set to music by the same musician who in Petrarch's eleven stanzas had sung the praises of Our Lady.' (+ texte complète du poème)

18 : Da quei bei lumi ond'io sempre sospiro, 5vv (Madrigaal) - [0, 3 Refs., , +T]
- p. 398-399 : 'In the title of the second edition of the first book of five-part madrigals (1544) stands the strange designation madregali cromatici which, as our examples have shown sufficiently, can have nothing to do with "chromaticism" in the modern, harmonic sense of the term. Rore does not yet know this sort of chromaticism; indeed he is even less 'colorful' and harmonically more austere and ascetic than his teacher Willaert. The word cromatico points only to the use of black notes in four-four time; with two exceptions (Da quei bei lumi and Hor che l'aria e la terra), every composition in the book has the time-signature C.'

19 : Deh, se ti strinse, amore, 5vv (Madrigaal) - [0, 2 Refs., , +T]
- p. 401 : '[. . .] 'Deh, se ti strins'amore' is a youthful work, still wholly in the styte of Verdelot; [. . .]'

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20 : Di virtù di costumi (2p Così'l mio stil), 5vv (Madrigaal) - [1, 6 Refs., , +Te]
- p. 423
- p. 418

21 : Dissimulare etiam sperasti - Quin etiam hiberno - Me ne fugis, 5-7vv (Motet) - [7, 5 Refs., , +Tnfe]
- p. 386 : '[. . .] the great tripartite scene of Dido's death from the fourth book of the Aeneid (305-319).'

22 : Donec gratus eram tibi, 8vv (Motet) - [1, 4 Refs., , +Tnfe]
- p. 386 : 'Horace's ode 'Donec gratus eram tibi' a hymn of praise for five voices in honor of Duke Ercole, [. . .]'

23 : En voz adieux - Hellas, comment, 4vv (Chanson) - [5, 10 Refs., , +Tne]
- p. 392 : Exemple de la patition : 'The chromatism, in soprano and bass, to which Zarlino refers with approval, portrays tear-stained cheeks. Striking also in the second case is the bold step from major to minor. It is an important passage, to which we shall return later.'
- p. 391 : 'It seems too, that the only two chansons found in Rore's Italian prints (Primo libro a 4, 1550) refer to the Duchess Renée, Duke Ercole's unfortunate wife, a younger daughter of King Louis XII of France, and a sister-in-law of Francis I, who led so sad and perilous a life as a Protestant princess on the throne of a papal fief. But is eems that the Duke had no objections to the addressing of harmless homage to her, as in: 'En vos adieux' or in the following 'answer' (rsiposta) 'Hellas, comment voulez-vous que nos yeulz . . .'.'

24 : Fontana di dolore, 4vv (Madrigaal) - [0, 4 Refs., , +Tne]
- p. 392-393 : 'Strangely enough, Rore is the composer of two splendid political madrigals, not for five voices but for four, both in his second book. The first of these, which opens the print, has to do with the rebellion against Charles V of the German Protestant princes allied with France (l'aureo giglio) and announces to the emperor, in pro-phetic and flaming words, his certain victory: 'Un'altra volta la Germania strida'. This composition can only have been written in 1543 or 1544, since toward the end of 1543 the war between Francis I and Charles V in northern Italy broke out afresh; or in 1546 or 1547, when hostilities began between Charles V and the Lutheran princes of the League of Schmalkalden. Thus in those days the madrigal could become a vehicle for political, if not for nationalistic, enthusiasm. But it is still stranger that Rore should have set that sonnet of Petrarch's: 'Fontana di dolore, albergo d'ira' in which the gentle singer of Madonna Laura heaps abuse upon papal Rome as the home of all the vices and deceit, as a shameless harlot. How was this possible in the days of the Council of Trent? How was it possible to publish this madrigal, which could be interpreted only in a very actual sense? What powerful patron and protector was shielding Rore? Was it the Duke, who foresaw the future sufferings of his state under papal rule ? The composition could have been written only in Ferrara, and it was naturally put on the Index.'

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25 : Gravi pene in amor (2p Io dico e dissi), 3vv (Madrigaal) - [0, 2 Refs., , +Tn]
- p. 409-410

26 : Hor che l'aria (2p Sol nel mio petto), 5vv (Madrigaal) - [2, 3 Refs., , +T]
- p. 399 : 'In the title of the second edition of the first book of five-part madrigals (1544) stands the strange designation madregali cromatici which, as our examples have shown sufficiently, can have nothing to do with "chromaticism" in the modern, harmonic sense of the term. Rore does not yet know this sort of chromaticism; indeed he is even less 'colorful' and harmonically more austere and ascetic than his teacher Willaert. The word cromatico points only to the use of black notes in four-four time; with two exceptions (Da quei bei lumi and Hor che l'aria e la terra), every composition in the book has the time-signature C.'

27 : Hor che'l ciel (2p Così sol d'una chiara fonte), 5vv (Madrigaal) - [8, 4 Refs., , +Tne]
- p. 396 : 'He does not avoid restrained tone-painting; but in Petrarch's sonnet Hor che'l ciel'e la terra e'l vento tace when at the word cielo he bows to the conventions of his time and gives four of the voices ascending intervals - a fifth, a third, and an octave -he Iets the bass, as the last to enter, descend, as though to show how little he cares about such things. Further on, when "Night turns the celestial car," the bass depicts it : [voorbeeld]. But the drastic symbol goes unnoticed by the other voices.' (met muziekvoorbeeld)

28 : I mi vivea (2p O natura, pietosa), 5vv (Madrigaal) - [0, 1 Ref., , +Tne]
- p. 401 : 'His temperament is naturally gloomy and subject to depression: such a sonnet as his I' mi vivea di mia sorte contento is somber, not only because of the sound of the five men's voices in their lower register, but also because of its melodie and harmonic idiom.'

29 : Ite rime dolenti (2p E se qualche pietà), 5vv (Madrigaal) - [0, 1 Ref., , +T]
- p. 403 : 'Ite Rime dolenti [. . .] is a musical letter from a Ferrarese nobleman an die ferne Geliebte.'

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30 : La bella Greca, 5vv (Madrigaal) - [1, 2 Refs., , +T]
- p. 393 : 'Needless to say, Rore also wrote to order a number of pieces in honor of noble ladies: a Venetian Elena (La bella Greca, IV, 1; thus a dedication); a certain Rosa (Ben si convien, I, 19); an Alma Susanna (V, 5); on the departure for Cremona of an alta Isabella (Sfrondate o sacre dive, II, 3); on the wedding of a Gonzaga (Cantiamo lieti, II, 1); besides these there are other wedding songs (Scielgan l'alme sorelle, II, 14) and threnodies, e.g., Francesco Maria Molza's sonnet Altiero sasso (I, 6) on the death of a Roman, or Tu piangi (I, 7).'

31 : La bella netta ignuda e bianca mano, 4vv (Madrigaal) - [6, 3 Refs., , +T]
- p. 408 : 'Certain pieces, such as La bella netta ignuda e bianca mano or Come havran fin Ie dolorose tempre, with their quiet flow, their compact texture, and their relative lack of personal expression, still stand close to their point of departure, the madrigal of Verdelot. But the 'ambiguity' of the tempo, the transparency of the part-writing, and the personal cast of the melos are constantly becoming more pronounced.'

32 : La giustitia immortale, 4vv (Madrigaal) - [1, 2 Refs., , +Tne]
- p. 407 : 'One such piece of his is the final chorus for Giraldi Cinzio's last tragedy Selene. Comparing it with the modest choruses written by Corteccia for Francesco d'Ambra's Il Furto - intrinsically modest, for the means are the same in either case -one is aware of the whole disparity between the comic and the tragic, between Florence and Ferrara, and between the two composers. Rore's music begins solemnly, and despite a few livelier moments, preserves its solemnity to the end, as befits a tragedy in which divine justice metes out rewards and punishments ac-cording to man's deserts: La giustitia immortale . . .. Thus Rore also stands at the beginning of the drama with integral music, though not of the opera, to be sure, and I do not believe that many final choruses in later music breathe such high seriousness and as much classical dignity as this simple four-part choral composition.' (+ texte du poème ainsi qu'un exemple musical)

33 : L'alto signor dinanzi a cui non vale (2p L'una piagh'arde), 6vv (Madrigaal) - [2, 1 Ref., , +Tne]
- p. 421 : 'A high point of Rore's art is his setting in this book of Petrarch's sonnet L'alto Signor, dinanzi a cui non vale. . . .. The poet tells how his own passion is redoubled through the admixture of pity: Anzi per la piëta cresce'l desio . . . Rore gives the poem dignity and spiritual significance by setting it for six voices, by blending declamation with melisma, by giving it breadth of treatment: never has Petrarch been so transfigured, so sublimated, so spiritualized.'

34 : Lasso che mal accorto, 5vv (Madrigaal) - [1, 1 Ref., , +Tne]
- p. 402 : 'Nor is this the only respect in which the third book pays homage to Petrarch: there are also eight great sonnets, seven of them bipartite; in one case, the sonnet Lasso che mal accorto, Rore has set only the two quatrains. All are serious in content, and one of them, S'onest'amor, may be considered a 'sonetto spirituale'.'

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35 : L'augel sacro di Giove (2p Ondi'il bel nome vostro), 5vv (Madrigaal) - [0, 6 Refs., , +Te]
- p. 403 : 'L'augel sacro [. . .] seems gain to be a festive composition on Charles V'

36 : Lieta vivo e contenta, 6vv (Madrigaal) - [1, 5 Refs., , +T]
- p. 422 : 'As late as 1591, twenty-five years after Rore's death, the Venetian physician (medico fisico) and poet Orazio Guargante published, together with a canzone by Filippo di Monte, a six-voiced madrigal and a quadripartite canzone, likewise for six voices, by Rore: Lieta vivo e contenta, and S'equal a la mia voglia .. the canzone, as he puts it, del Maestro de' Maestri M. Ciprian Rore, non più veduta nè udita. He does not explain how he obtained possession of the .MSS, and it seems to me probable that he was the victim of a fraud. For the two works, though undoubtedly written in the 'fifties, both in the misura di breve, have few characteristic features: the madrigal is distinguished only by its strongly accented homophonic declamation; the canzone, with its short stanzas (A-B-c-c'-B'-A'), only by an impressive inflection toward A-flat major (F minor) in the final section. [. . .]'

37 : L'inconstantia che seco han le mortali, 4vv (Madrigaal) - [1, 2 Refs., , +Tne]
- p. 408 : 'One such piece of his is the final chorus for Giraldi Cinzio's last tragedy Selene. Comparing it with the modest choruses written by Corteccia for Francesco d'Ambra's Il Furto - intrinsically modest, for the means are the same in either case -one is aware of the whole disparity between the comic and the tragic, between Florence and Ferrara, and between the two composers. Rore's music begins solemnly, and despite a few livelier moments, preserves its solemnity to the end, as befits a tragedy in which divine justice metes out rewards and punishments according to man's deserts: La giustitia immortale . . .. Thus Rore also stands at the beginning of the drama with integral music, though not of the opera, to be sure, and I do not believe that many final choruses in later music breathe such high seriousness and as much classical dignity as this simple four-part choral composition. The other madrigal of this sort is shorter, livelier, indeed more agitated: L'inconstantia che seco han . . . Rore's temperament admits no neutrality.'

38 : L'ineffabil bontà, 5vv (Madrigaal) - [1, 1 Ref., , +Tne]
- p. 390-391 : 'When Rore sets the first stanza in canto XIX of the Orlando furioso : Alcun non può saper it is an homage to the house of Este in the sense intended by the poet, himself a servant of the family, though a poorly paid one. And in the following stanza (Orlando furioso, XLIII, 62) the intension is unmistakable: L'ineffabel bontà this is a prayer for Ferrara and the Estes, a prayer that unfortunately remained unanswered. In setting this text, Rore made use of so strange a combination of artifice and epigrammatic brevity that one might think the piece designed for the beginning or end of some pefuntiory court ceremony.' (+ texte complète du poème)

39 : Mentre lumi maggior, 5vv (Madrigaal) - [2, 5 Refs., , +Tnfe]
- p. 387 : 'None the less, he does not seem to have felt quite at ease in Brussels, for toward the end of January, 1561, he goes from Antwerp to Ottavio Farnese, Margareta's warlike husband in Parma, where for two years he is busied with new compositions. Here again he makes it a point to express his gratitude in a dedicatory sonnet 'all'illustrissimo Duca di Parma' : Mentre lumi maggior.' (+ texte complète du poème)

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40 : Mia benigna fortuna (2p Crudele acerba), 4vv (Madrigaal) - [11, 12 Refs., , +Tnfe]
- p. 415 : '[. . .] to every musician who set it to music - Arcadelt, Lasso, Monte, Wert, and lastly Marenzio - this poem was an occasion for the most profound expressiveness. And it seems that Rore must have known Lasso's five-voiced setting of the text, printed two years previously (1555); for in Lasso we already find, in the alto, the opening with the "pathetic" leap of a sixth which Rore outdoes by making the interval a major one. We reproduce the piece without attempting any change. I cannot spare the reader the difficulty inherent in Rore's notation: each of the two pairs of voices has a different key-signature, the soprano and tenor one flat, the alto and bass two. This apparent opposition or conflict is of the very essence of the piece. Equally so is the similar conflict in Josquin's harmonically experimental 'Fortuna d'un gran tempo' in Petrucci's Odhecaton, with its three key-signatures - the soprano without accidentals, the tenor with one flat, the contratenor with two. The road leads from Josquin through Willaert to Rore and to pieces of this kind. The very entrance of soprano and tenor is an infraction of the rules, for the leap of a major sixth was not allowed. (As late as 1725, J. J. Fux, in his Gradus ad Parnassum, forbids it in the strict style.) lts effect here actually is somewhat awe inspiring, somewhat extravagant, and it clashes with the bitterness of the e-flat in the alto at the word accerba. The whole is a masterpiece unparalleled in its audacity - and in its inner logic - and it has scarcely been outdone by the later "romanticists" of the chromatic madrigal.'

41 : Ne l'aria in questi dì fatt'ho un sì forte, 4vv (Madrigaal) - [2, 2 Refs., , +T]
- p. 418 : 'Another piece published shortly after Rore's death by Giulio Bonagionta (Gli amorosi concenti, 1568, not mentioned by Vogel) is a sonnet developing a comparison: Ne l'aria in questi di . . . [volledige tekst van het gedicht]. It is durchkomponiert, set at one breath without any attempt at harmonie or linear tone-painting, but with an incredible energy of declamation - one of the great masterpieces of madrigal literature. It was not reprinted until 1575. '

42 : O altitudo divitiarum - Quis enim cognovit, 5vv (Motet) - [5, 3 Refs., , +T]
- p. 410 : 'Zacconi, in his Prattica di musica (II, 1622, 63f.), recognized Rore as Monteverdi's real predecessor, although the two masters cannot even be said to belong to successive generations, for Monteverdi was more than fifty years younger and Rore died two years before Monteverdi was born. "He who wishes to learn the proper use of dissonances," Zacconi says, "should study the works of Signor Monte Verdi [sic] which are quasi piene of them; [ . . .]. And should anyone ask me where he found it, I should reply that he took it from the second part of Cipriano's motet O altitudo divitiarum . . . or rather, that however much he may have taken it from him, he was not moved by him alone, but [also] by the daily usage of our modern singers who sing their pieces with the most agreeably impassioned inflections in order to make themselves more agreeable to their listeners".'

43 : O fortuna potens - Haec aufert iuvenis, 5vv (Motet) - [0, 2 Refs., , +Tne]
- p. 386 : '[. . .] an epigram on the force of destiny, by Caelius Firmanius Simphosius'.

44 : O morte, eterno fin, 5vv (Madrigaal) - [1, 5 Refs., , +Tne]
- p. 419 : exemple musical

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45 : O sonno, O della queta' humida ombrosa, 4vv (Madrigaal) - [13, 11 Refs., , +Tne]
- p. 417 : 'It is the companion piece to the setting of Niccolo Amanio's sonnet Strane rupi, aspri monti . . . printed fifteen years earlier in the first book of the five-voiced madrigals. There the somber, romantic expression, the "inner tone-painting," was attained through the interweaving of the voices, through expansion, through disintegration - one might almost say, through unravelling - but at all events through polyphony and without alteration of the tonality. The later work rests its expression almost entirely upon homophony and the harmonie. It is a grandiose choral declamation, but it is a declamation governed by meaning, not by rhyme. Was Rore personally acquainted with della Casa, who was in Venice as papal nuncio from 1544 to 1550? One has the impression here that he has begun by reducing the sonnet to prose, or that he has sought to accommodate himself to the individual manner of the poet who "fancied the long period, avoided the constructions of familiar speech, affected the unusual word-order, caused his sentences to run over the ends of lines and stanzas, and in his choice of expression and phrase recalls Dante rather than Petrarch" (Wiese and Percopo, 'Gcschichte der italienischen Literatitur', p, 328). Not until the second part does the part-writing become more animated, though never so much so as to destroy the character of the grandiose choral monody.'
- p. 423

46 : Padre del ciel (2p Hor volge, Signor), 5vv (Madrigaal) - [2, 2 Refs., , +Tne]
- p. 401 : 'It is characteristic that Rore, in full consciousness of his responsibility, was the first to set to music Petrarch's sonnet Padre del ciel, doppo i perduti giorni, written on Good Friday 1338, the poem was used in spite of its personal content by the whole musical Counter Reformation as a sonetto spirituale, as a symbol of contrition and of the renunciation of the world and all its works. Among the other composers of the time, only Girolamo Scotto had the courage to compose it, for three voices. How Rore accomplished the task may be seen in our volume of examples.' [on trouve cet exemple musical dans 'Einstein A.: The Italian Madrigal, Vol. III, Nr 46'].

47 : Per mezz'i boschi (2p Parmi d'udirla), 5vv (Madrigaal) - [1, 9 Refs., , +Te]
- p. 398 : 'Equally magnificent in its symbolism is the opening of Petrarch's sonnet Per mezz'i boschi inhospiti e selvaggi where the parts enter at irregular intervals while one and the same motif is turned now upward and now downward, not an image of the man who goes "confident and fearless" through the wilderness, but of his opposite. It is more than a presenti-ment: it is a direct anticipation of the Prelude to the third act of Parsifal. So characteristic of the early Rore is this madrigal in its agitation and its vivid painting of emotional states, so closely allied is the spirit evoked by the poetic idea, that it must be included in our collection of examples [in Einstein A.: The Italian Madrigal, Vol. III, Nr 45]; it may serve as a paradigm for the entire first phase of Rore's work.'
- p. 394 : '[. . .] his choices from Petrarch are also most original. He exploits whatever is dark and picturesque in the Canzoniere; he is one of the few to set Petrarch's sonnet of desolation and wilderness: Per mezz'i boschi.'

48 : Poi che m'invita Amore (2p E se pur mi mantiene), 5vv (Madrigaal) - [1, 6 Refs., , +Tne]
- p. 410 : 'Our comparison of Rore with Monteverdi would be hazardous and at best incomplete had Rore not been an epoch-making innovator in the field of harmony also. In this sense Monteverdi himself wished to be considered as Rore's successor; in one of the letters in which he defends himself against Giovanni-Maria Artusi, he justifies his use of the diminished fourth with a reference to one of Rore's five-voiced madrigals (Poiche m'invita amore) . . .'
- p. 423

49 : Pommi ov'il sol, 5vv (Madrigaal) - [1, 5 Refs., , +Tne]
- p. 403 : ' . . .as late as 1599 one number from this book is mentioned by Ercole Bottrigari in his Desiderio (p.20), among other cantilene by "huomini pratici famosi", as a model of musica finta, which in modern terms consists simply in the use of b-flat and e-flat in the key-signature, or in the transposition of the "modified Lydian" to the lower fifth. In the example cited by Bottrigari its employment is presumably prompted by the text :
Pommi ove'l Sol occide i fiori e l’erba . . .
Pommi ove'è'l carro suo temprato e leve . . .
Pommi . . .etc.

The intention is to symbolize this "transposition". But as the lover remains the same in every clime, so this sonnet, which is set in one breath, follows its predetermined path amid changing surroundings. Rore intends no chromatism, no exploration of uncharted territory; in its respect for the diatonic modal prity, this whole third book is if anything stricter than the first and second.'

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50 : Pulchrior Italicis, 5vv (Motet) - [0, 2 Refs., , +T]
- p. 403

51 : Qualhor rivolgo il basso (2p Ma pur in te sperar), 5vv (Madrigaal) - [1, 2 Refs., , +Te]

52 : Quando fra l'altre donne (2p Io benedico 'l loco), 5vv (Madrigaal) - [0, 3 Refs., , +Tne]
- p. 395 : '[. . .] one can define the revolutionary side of his appearance about 1542 in one respect: he is indifferent to the form of the poem, the structure of the line, and the consonance of the stanzas. He respects neither rhyme nor line-division. In setting a sonnet, he sometimes does so in one breath, sometimes divides it into quatrains and tercets (Tu piangi; Quel vago impallidir; Quando fra l'altre); he does not hesitate, in his prima parte to set only the first quatrain, leaving all the rest for the 'seconda parte'. What he wants is the word, in its most forceful expression; for this reason his writing is in principle polyphonic, but even in his polyphony he retains his freedom.'

53 : Quando signor lasciaste (2p Ma poi che vostr'altezza), 5vv (Madrigaal) - [1, 14 Refs., , +Te]
- p. 391 : 'Among th Ferrares compositions there is also a sonnet which profetically exhorts the father of the North Italian rivers, the Po (IV, 6): Volgi'l tuo corso or another on the departure of the Duke for the battlefield : Quando signor lasciast.'
- p. 418

54 : Quel foco che tanti anni, 4vv (Madrigaal) - [0, 2 Refs., , +T]
- p. 406 : ' [. . .] But to return to Rore and the new possibility of accelerating or retarding the tempo: Rore - and with and after Rore, most musicians of his generation - chose the first of these two possibilities as a matter of principle, for acceleration is the more normal phenomenon and leads the more normally toward a climax. Among all the compositions in his first book for four voices only one madrigal is still in the proportio subdupla or in four-four time, perhaps as a reflection of the text: Quel foco che tant'anni. If this interpretation is correct, it should indicate that four-four time was associated with the idea of a faster tempo after all.' (+ texte du poème)

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55 : Quel vago impallidir (2p Conobbi allhor), 5vv (Madrigaal) - [0, 1 Ref., , +Tne]
- p. 395 : '[. . .] one can define the revolutionary side of his appearance about 1542 in one respect: he is indifferent to the form of the poem, the structure of the line, and the consonance of the stanzas. He respects neither rhyme nor line-division. In setting a sonnet, he sometimes does so in one breath, sometimes divides it into quatrains and tercets (Tu piangi; Quel vago impallidir; Quando fra l'altre); he does not hesitate, in his 'prima parte' to set only the first quatrain, leaving all the rest for the seconda parte. What he wants is the word, in its most forceful expression; for this reason his writing is in principle polyphonic, but even in his polyphony he retains his freedom.'

56 : Quest'affanato mio doglioso core, 5vv (Madrigaal) - [0, 2 Refs., , +Tn]
- p. 390 : 'The third book for four voices consists of the posthumous Vive fiamme publishes by Giulio Bonagionta in the year of Rore's death, which contains one of his greatest master-works, the 'partenza' Quest'affanto mio doglioso core.'

57 : Rex Asiae et Ponti, 5vv (Motet) - [0, 6 Refs., , +Te]
- p. 387-388 : 'And the Vive fiamme of 1565 seem to suggest that Rore also entered into relations with the Fuggers of Augsburg in the course of these journeys to Flanders or from Flanders to Italy : Rex Asiae et Ponti ....' (+ texte complète du poème)

58 : Schiet'arbuscel, di cui ramo né foglia, 4vv (Madrigaal) - [4, 6 Refs., , +Tfe]
- p. 416 : 'The sonnet Schiet'arbuscel di cui ramo ne foglia dies away into the infinite at its desperate close: Ma poiche ria fortuna [. . ]. Somewhat obscure in the print of 1571 (which I use), the passage admits no other interpretation: the chromatic treatment of the repeated ending prepares the B major harmony most effectively [met muzikaal voorbeeld].'
- p. 423

59 : Scielgan l'alme sorelle (2p Ardir, senno, virtù), 5vv (Madrigaal) - [0, 3 Refs., , +T]
- p. 401 : 'In 1540 only Rore could write a section as 'articulated' as the opening of the seconda parte of the wedding madrigal Scielgan l'alme sorelle: [muziekvoorbeeld]. Clarity and the vivid treatment of each word are for him of the first importance. One is reminded of the scrupulous care with which Beethoven, in the last scène of his Fidelio, set Rocco's words: nur Euer Kommen rief ihn fort..'
- p. 393 : 'Needless to say, Rore also wrote to order a number of pieces in honor of noble ladies: a Venetian Elena (La bella Greca, IV, 1; thus a dedication); a certain Rosa (Ben si convien, I, 19); an Alma Susanna (V, 5); on the departure for Cremona of an alta Isabella (Sfrondate o sacre dive, II, 3); on the wedding of a Gonzaga (Cantiamo lieti, II, 1); besides these there are other wedding songs (Scielgan l'alme sorelle, II, 14) and threnodies, e.g., Francesco Maria Molza's sonnet Altiero sasso (I, 6) on the death of a Roman, or Tu piangi (I, 7).'

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60 : Se ben il duol (2p Ben voi), 5vv (Madrigaal) - [4, 10 Refs., , +Tnfe]
- p. 420-421 : 'Both parts of the sonnet are declaimed in this manner, and it is difficult not to think in this connection of the monodic attempts which, forty or fifty years later, look almost like arrangements of such pieces for voice and lute. But these monodic attempts exclude the possibility of remming from homophony to polyphony, a possibility which Rore is always careful to leave open: such returns are doubly eflective, as in this very piece, at the beginning of the seconda parte: Ben voi a piu di mille e mille segni. After the four-part opening the soprano suddenly opposes itself to the compact mass of the other voices and introduces a contrapuntally treated line which serves to symbolize the "thousands upon thousands of signs."' (p.420: muziekvoorbeeld)
- p. 423

61 : Se voi poteste (2p Che gentil pianta), 5vv (Madrigaal) - [1, 1 Ref., , +Tne]
- p. 403 : 'And with one exception, a rather declamatory sonnet by Petrarch Se voi poteste, all compositions [van het derde madrigaalboek, 1548] are written in the misura commune: it is not Rore's intention to experiment - he has attained mastery within the frame of Willaert's school.'.

62 : S'eguale a la mia voglia, 6vv (Madrigaal) - [2, 2 Refs., , +T]
- p. 422 : 'As late as 1591, twenty-five years after Rore's death, the Venetian physician (medico fisico) and poet Orazio Guargante published, together with a canzone by Filippo di Monte, a six-voiced madrigal and a quadripartite canzone, likewise for six voices, by Rore: Lieta vivo e contenta, and S'equal a la mia voglia .. the canzone, as he puts it, del Maestro de' Maestri M. Ciprian Rore, non più veduta nè udita.. He does not explain how he obtained possession of the .MSS, and it seems to me probable that he was the victim of a fraud. For the two works, though undoubtedly written in the 'fifties, both in the misura di breve, have few characteristic features: the madrigal is distinguished only by its strongly accented homophonic declamation; the canzone, with its short stanzas (A-B-c-c'-B'-A'), only by an impressive inflection toward A-flat major (F minor) in the final section. [. . .]'

63 : Sfrondate, o sacre dive, 5vv (Madrigaal) - [0, 2 Refs., , +T]
- p. 393 : 'Needless to say, Rore also wrote to order a number of pieces in honor of noble ladies: a Venetian Elena (La bella Greca, IV, 1; thus a dedication); a certain Rosa (Ben si convien, I, 19); an Alma Susanna (V, 5); on the departure for Cremona of an alta Isabella (Sfrondate o sacre dive, II, 3); on the wedding of a Gonzaga (Cantiamo lieti, II, 1); besides these there are other wedding songs (Scielgan l'alme sorelle, II, 14) and threnodies, e.g., Francesco Maria Molza's sonnet Altiero sasso (I, 6) on the death of a Roman, or Tu piangi (I, 7).'

64 : S'honest'amor può meritar (2p Ond'io spero), 5vv (Madrigaal) - [0, 1 Ref., , +Tne]
- p. 402 : 'Nor is this the only respect in which the third book pays homage to Petrarch: there are also eight great sonnets, seven of them bipartite; in one case, the sonnet Lasso che mal accorto, Rore has set only the two quatrains. All are serious in content, and one of them, S'onest'amor, may be considered a sonetto spirituale.'

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65 : Solea lontana (2p Non ti soven), 5vv (Madrigaal) - [0, 3 Refs., , +Tne]
- p. 396-398 : 'His symbolism is in general more refined and musical. It leads him to the discovery of transposition. In Petrarch's sonnet Solea lontana in sonno consolarme he goes twice through the beginning of Laura's address, first in four voices, then in five, and in so doing almost literally transposes the four-part setting a fifth lower, covering it, as it were, by the soprano: it suggests an absorption in dreamlike recollection: [muziekvoorbeeld].' (+ texte complet du poème)

66 : Strane ruppi (2p A guisa d'hom), 5vv (Madrigaal) - [0, 4 Refs., , +T]
- p. 394 : 'And he outdoes the picturesque and the baroque in such texts by setting this sonnet from Niccolo Amanio : Strane ruppi . Already implicit in both poetry and music is the whole picturesque "romanticism" of Salvator Rosa and of kindred spirits.' (Note : Alfred Einstein mentionne Niccolo Amanio comme l'écrivain de ce poème, mais j'ai trouvé à un autre endroit (ource?) qui Luigi Tansillo en serait l'auteur !)

67 : Tu piangi (2p Lei tutta intenta), 5vv (Madrigaal) - [0, 5 Refs., , +T]
- p. 395 : '[. . .] one can define the revolutionary side of his appearance about 1542 in one respect: he is indifferent to the form of the poem, the structure of the line, and the consonance of the stanzas. He respects neither rhyme nor line-division. In setting a sonnet, he sometimes does so in one breath, sometimes divides it into quatrains and tercets (Tu piangi; Quel vago impallidir; Quando fra l'altre); he does not hesitate, in his 'prima parte' to set only the first quatrain, leaving all the rest for the seconda parte. What he wants is the word, in its most forceful expression; for this reason his writing is in principle polyphonic, but even in his polyphony he retains his freedom.'
- p. 393 : 'Needless to say, Rore also wrote to order a number of pieces in honor of noble ladies: a Venetian Elena (La bella Greca, IV, 1; thus a dedication); a certain Rosa (Ben si convien, I, 19); an Alma Susanna (V, 5); on the departure for Cremona of an alta Isabella (Sfrondate o sacre dive, II, 3); on the wedding of a Gonzaga (Cantiamo lieti, II, 1); besides these there are other wedding songs (Scielgan l'alme sorelle, II, 14) and threnodies, e.g., Francesco Maria Molza's sonnet Altiero sasso (I, 6) on the death of a Roman, or Tu piangi (I, 7).'

68 : Tutto'l dì piango (2p Lasso, che pur), 3vv (Madrigaal) - [0, 1 Ref., , +Tne]
- p. 409-410

69 : Un'altra volta la Germania strida, 4vv (Madrigaal) - [0, 7 Refs., , +Tne]
- p. 392-393 : 'Strangely enough, Rore is the composer of two splendid political madrigals, not for five voices but for four, both in his second book. The first of these, which opens the print, has to do with the rebellion against Charles V of the German Protestant princes allied with France (l'aureo giglio) and announces to the emperor, in prophetic and flaming words, his certain victory: Un'altra volta la Germania strida. This composition can only have been written in 1543 or 1544, since toward the end of 1543 the war between Francis I and Charles V in northern Italy broke out afresh; or in 1546 or 1547, when hostilities began between Charles V and the Lu-theran princes of the League of Schmalkalden. Thus in those days the madrigal could become a vehicle for political, if not for nationalistic, enthusiasm. But it is still stranger that Rore should have set that sonnet of Petrarch's: Fontana di dolore, albergo d'ira in which the gentle singer of Madonna Laura heaps abuse upon papal Rome as the home of all the vices and deceit, as a shameless harlot. How was this possible in the days of the Council of Trent? How was it possible to publish this madrigal, which could be interpreted only in a very actual sense? What powerful patron and protector was shielding Rore? Was it the Duke, who foresaw the future sufferings of his state under papal rule ? The composition could have been written only in Ferrara, and it was naturally put on the Index.' (+ texte complète du poème)
- p. 423

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70 : Vergine bella, 5vv (Madrigaalcyclus) - [0, 6 Refs., +Tn]
- p. 385, 402

71 : Volgi'l tuo corso, 5vv (Madrigaal) - [0, 6 Refs., , +T]
- p. 391 : 'Among th Ferrares compositions there is also a sonnet which profetically exhorts the father of the North Italian rivers, the Po (IV, 6): Volgi'l tuo corso or another on the departure of the Duke for the battlefield : Quando signor lasciast.'


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